کسب و کار کوچک الکترونیک
به سوی بی نهایت و فرا تر از آن
کسب و کار کوچک چیست؟
در این پست به تعریف کلی و مختصر مفهوم کسب و کار های کوچک میپردازیم:
کسب و کارهای کوچک، مشاغلی است با تعدادکمی کارمند و حجم فروش پایین که به بخش خصوصی تعلق دارد. معمولاً کسبو کارهای کوچک متعلق به شرکتهای خصوصی، مشارکتی، یا فرد محور هستند.تعریف قانونی از واژه"کوچک(SMALL)" از لحاظ تاریخی بنا به کشور و صنعت متفاوت است، اما در کل در ایالات متحده تا 100 کارمند و در اتحادیه اروپا تا 50 کارمند را شامل میشود. با وجود این در فستیوال کار اکتبر 2009 در استرالیا، یک کسب وکار کوچک با کمتر از 15 کارمند توصیف شده است. در مقایسه ،کسب و کار های متوسط (mid-sized) در ایالات متحده زیر 500 کارمند ، در اتحادیه اروپا 250 ، و در استرالیا کمتر از 200 کارمند دارد.
علاوه بر تعداد کارمندان،روشهای دیگری که برای طبقه بندی کسب و کار های کوچک استفاده می شود فروش سالانه (گردش مالی)، ارزش دارایی و سود خالص (ترازنامه)، به تنهایی یا در یک معنی ترکیب می باشند. این معیارها از سوی اتحادیه اروپا دنبال میشوند برای مثال ،(سرشماری ،حجم معاملات و مجموع ترازنامه ها).کسب و کارهای کوچک معمولاً در زمینه کارهای خود برجسته نیستند.
کسب و کارهای کوچک بسته به عملکرد سیستم اقتصادی در بسیاری از کشورها متداول است. نمونه های معمول آن عبارتند از : فروشگاه رفاه(فروشگاه های کوچک)،فروشگاه های کوچک دیگر (مانند اغذیه فروشی یا نانوایی)، بازرگان ، آرایشگران ، وکلا حسابداران، رستورانها، مهمان خانه، عکاسان، تولید در مقیاس کوچک و غیره.
کوچکترین کسب و کار ، که اغلب در خانه های شخصی قرار گرفته است کسب و کار ریز یا micro business (اصطلاحی که توسط سازمانهای بین المللی مانند بانک جهانی و امور مالی بین المللی شرکت استفاده می شود.) یا سوهو SoHos نامیده میشود. اصطلاح "کسب و کار مادر و شعب "تعریف معمول برای کسب و کارهای تک خانواده با چند (یا هیچ) کارمند به جز صاحب کار است. وقتی با تعدادی کارمند در نظر گرفته شود تعاریف آمریکا و اروپا برای آن به شکل یکسان زیر 10 کارمند است.
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سه شنبه 24 آذر 1388 :: نویسنده : صادق کاظمی خانقاه
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مدیر وبلاگ : صادق کاظمی خانقاه